Chin Human Rights Organization (CHRO) ah Program Director A Ṭuan Mi Mai Thin Yu Mon He Biaruahnak

Tutan (Chin Digest Vol. 6, No. 3) ah biaruahnak tawi kan ngeih mi Mai Thin Yu Mon hi M.A., (English), Yangon University of Foreign Languages in a dih hnu ah  Post-graduate Diploma pahnih (International Relations le Business Law) a lim. Cun, atu lio Chin Human Rights Organization (CHRO) ah Indigenous Peoples Development Program (IPDP) ah Director a si.

Cun, CHRO aiawh in Asia Indigenous Peoples Pact (AIPP) ah EC chungtel le Global Indigenous Youth Caucus ah Asia Focal a ṭuan cuahmah lio mi a si. CHRO ah amah nih a tlaih mi Kokek Miphun Covo le Thinghram Zohkhen Thanchonak lei kong pehtlai mi a si bantuk in,  Chin Digest nih Hakha Vawlei Baibainak kong ah cozah nih phung ngeih mi lei in biaruahnak kan rak ngeih.

Chin Digest (CD): Chin ram hi kanmah ta a si maw (A tawinak tein…)?

Thin Yu Mon (TYM): Kokek miphun kan si. Chin ram cu Kawlram pumpi sin kan i fonh hlan in kanmah tein aa uk mi le aa zohkhenh mi kan si. Chin ram hi kan mah ta a si.

CD: Kan umnak vawlei hmunhma hi kanmah ta a si maw?

TYM: Kokek miphun (ram ngeitu) kan si caah vawlei hi kanmah ta a si. Asinain, Ralkap nih a ser mi 2008 Phunghram tang ah cun vawlei kanmah ta a sinak hi ṭha tein a kan   kilkamhpiak lo. Cucaah amah tang i ser mi vawlei he aa pehtlai upadi (phung) pawl zong hi upadi ning ahcun vawlei hi aa hlan mi lawng te kan si. Cucu ram tampi ah an zulh ning a si ve ṭhiam. Sihmanhsehlaw, vawlei ngeihnak pungsan (form) kan ngeih ning cio in tuahnak nawl kan ngeih dan hi aa dang cio. Cucu, upadi ning in Kokek (ram ngeitu) miphun kan si, kan pupa chan in kan hohak mi vawlei hi kanmah ta a si.

CD: Hakha ah a buai ngai mi ‘100 le 676 Ekah’ vawilei hmunhma kong, buainak hi zei ruang bik ah dah a si?

TYM: Mah buainak hi pupa ram kongkau he pehtlai in theihthiamnak kan i khat hna lo, cozah rak ser cia mi upadi (phung) hna hi    Laimi nih kan ngeih mi pupa ram ṭha le fiang tein theihpinak le cohlannak a kan ngeih rih lo mi hi a ruang pakhat a si. Atu hman lio mi, vawlei he aa pehtlai mi upadi pawl hi kan zoh tikah kan nunphung a rak huap hna lo. Cu leng ah kan Chin cozah lei ṭuanvo ngeitu nih hin kanmah phunglam te theih buin a ṭhatnak lei in tuaktan, i nawlpatnak um loin Kawl lei nelrawn i vawlei tawlrel ning in an kalpi caah a herh lo nak lengpi in buaibainak a chuah mi a si tiah ka hmuh.

CD: Zei ruang ah dah Chinmi asiloah tlangcung miphun dang nih vawlei hmunhma buainak kan ton?

TYM: Tlangcung miphun pawl hi Ramkomh Kawlram chung kan i tel hlan, a hlan kaan tein zatlang nunphung fek tein a ngei mi kan si. A bik in vawlei zohkhenh ning, tawlrel ning hi kanmah le phunglam cio kan ngei. Cu kan phunglam cu upadi nih theihpinak le fiang tein upadi ah telhpiak mi a um rih lo.

Nungphung le tawlrel daan phunglam a dangdang kan ngeih cio mi kha upadi nih theihpinak a kan tuahpiak lo leng ah, upadi phun khat in aa khat lo mi vialte kha tawlrel dih peng an kan timh mi nih hin buainak a chuahter khun mi hi a si.

CD: Chin Customary Law cu zeidah a si? Hi upadi (law) nih Chin miphun vawlei hmunhma ngeihnak kong ah zei tiang dah a kan humhim?

TYM: A hmasa bik ah ‘Customary Law’ ti mi cu miphun pakhat nih anmah chung i hnatlaknak tein an zulh mi phunglam le nawl kha a si. Cu ah cun ṭhit-umnak kongkau, vawlei le chaw zohkhenh tuaktan ning pawl ṭuanvo lak cio ning cang, buainak a chuah tikah biachah ning te pawl tiang in aa tel mi zatlang nunphung le zulh mi khi a si. A cheu hmunhma ah cu bantuk cu ca tein ṭial mi a ngei mi an um bantukin hmun tampi ahcun ca theng ṭial loin zapi theihthiamnak le i cinkennak in zulh zong a um tawn.

Chin huap i kan zoh tikah cu bantuk i a nai bik ah ca in ṭial mi ah a hmasa bik kan rak ngeih mi hi 1896 kum mirang chan i an rak ṭial mi ‘The Chin Hills Regulation 1896’ hi a si. Asinain, Chin Hills Regulation 1896 nih a chim mi cu khua bawi nih a uk le bia a caih tikah local custom (tualchung tawlrelning zulhphung) in a uk lai ti in a rak i ṭial mi a si.

Cun, a changtu ah Chin Act tiah zapi nih kan theih mi 1948 kum i an rak chuah mi ‘The Chin Special Division Act’ hi a si. Chin huappi in Chin ‘customary law’ ti in fehternak tuah mi ca in ṭial mi kan ngeih mi cu a um lo. A ruang cu Customary Law ti mi hi pengtlang ngeih in, phun le hnam (tribe) hoih in thil aa lawh lonak tete tampi a um.

CD: Cun, pupa loram cu zeidah a si i, aho te nih dah an ngeih?

TYM: Pupa loram ti mi hi Kokek Miphun hna nih ngeih mi vawlei a si. Cu vawlei cu pupa chan lio tein thlawh mi vawlei lawng si loin an rak humhak, an rak zoh khenh mi vawlei pawl zong aa tel. Cu vawlei cu ning cang tampi in: tahchunhnak ah ‘pu le pa’ nih ro in chiahtak mi maw, asiloah man co mi vawlei maw, dawtnak langhternak ca i rak i pek ṭhenhmi vawlei maw ti in ningcang tampi in chan khat hnu chankhat rak i chiah tak mi vawlei pawl an si. Cucu, pengtlang nih ngeih mi zong a si kho bantukin chungkhar pakhat nih ngeih mi zong a si kho. Mahbalte cu, pupa loram tampi hi innpa chakthlang, khua mi zapi nih theihpi mi a tam.

CD: Pupa loram le cozah nih vawlei lawng, vawlei luat le vawlei hrim an ti mi aa dannak?

TYM: Ramkomh Kawlram cozah nih 2012 ah a rak chuah miမြေလွတ် မြေလပ်မြေရိုင်းများ စီမံခန့် ခွဲသည့် ဥပဒေ“vawlei lawng, vawlei luat le vawlei hrim” ti mi phung ah a sining le a sullam a fainter. Cu fianternak ah vawlei lawng le vawlei luat hi a hlan ah i hlan i rak thlawh bal mi vawlei an si i atu ah ṭuantu a um ti lonak vawlei pawl a ti.

Cun, vawlei hrim ti mi cu ahohmanh nih tongh bal rih lo, thlawh bal rih lo mi vawlei tiah sullam a phuan. Cu vawlei chung ah cun pupa loram hi a lut kho mi tampi a um ruangah tlangcung miphun tampi nih cu upadi cu hlawt ding in tampi dohnak kan rak tuah hna. Cu ruangah cun cu upadi cu a remh ṭhan. 2018 i a remh mi upadi (မြေလွတ်မြေလပ်မြေရိုင်းများ စီမံခန့် ခွဲသည့် ဥပဒေအား ပြင်ဆင်သည့် ဥပဒေ) ah cun no.30/b ah “vawlei lawng, vawlei luat le vawlei hrim pawl tawlrelnak upadi hi tlangcung miphun nih an nunphung ning in tawlrel mi vawlei cung ah nawl a ngei lai lo” tiah a remh. Cucu, pupa loram hi a dang tein a um ko timi hi cozah nih a cohlannak a langhternak a si.

CD: Tualchung tawlrelnak nawlngei Sipin nih khuapi sernak ding caah vawlei lawng, vawlei luat le vawlei hrim (676 Ekah) ti in Ramkomh cozah sin i an hal mi cung ah na hmuh ning?

TYM: Hakha cu Chinram i khualipi a si caah hmunhma kau deuh le tam deuh kan herh thluahmah ti hi cu ahohmanh nih kan al khawh lo mi thil a si. Asinain, 676 ekah kongkau ahhin cun cozah lei nih tawlrel dan hi a chambau ngai tiah ka hmuh.

Vawlei lawng, vawlei luat le vawlei hrim (မြေလွတ်မြေလပ်မြေရိုင်းများ စီမံခန့် ခွဲသည်ဥပဒေ) hi a nung mi upadi cu a si caah a cozah pakhat nih a hman khawh mi cu a si. Atu ah mi zapi theih loin cu upadi hmang in cozah sin ah hmun a hal in ekah tampi lak in rian a ṭuan len mi zong an um theih a si. Sihmanhsehlaw, atu tluk buainak, vawlei ngeitu ngaihchiatnak le cozah min chiatnak tiang phan loin khua kha ṭha tein rak samh khawh a si ko ti hi ka hmuh ning a si. Vawlei ngeitu hna an ngeihnak kha upat pek tein cozah lei nih biaruahnak le nawlpatnak te he rak leng hna sehlaw, a tawi fiannak cun Lairam a si caah Laiphung te hmang in tuaktan ṭinak rak um kho sehlaw, atu tluk in buainak a chuak hnga lo. Khua le ram ṭhancho le dawhter, mihar bawmh hi a duh mi lawng te kan si ko caah vawlei ngeitu zong nih lunglawm tein an rak pek ko hnga ti hi ka hmuh ning a si.

CD: “Vawlei hmunhma ngeitu sinak tehte ngeih loin a cozah vawlei an zuar” tiin 1947 kum i Mipi ngeihmi thilri/chawva ningcang loin hmannak upadi pohma 6(1) in thong an thlak mi hna cung ah na hmunh ning?

TYM: Atu kan Kawlram sining ah အစိုးရမှ စီမံခန့် ခွဲ ပိုင်ခွင့်ရှိသောမြေti mi hi fiang lo ngai in an hman mi biafang ah aa cang. Cun, mipi thilri le cozah thilri zong hi upadi pawl ah cawhhrup in hman mi a si. Upadi pakhat le pakhat zong ah hin an leh ning aa khat lo. Atu i tazacuai nak kongkau ah khan cun, vawlei ngeitu kan si ti mi dirhmun hi kan Chin State chung i rian a ṭuantu ṭuanvo ngeitu lila nih hin an philh tawn lengmang ruangah hin a buainak hi a si. Cucu, atuhi vawlei a ngeitu hna lawng fahnak an ton si loin Chinmi huap in zatlaknak kan ton a si.

CD: Ramkomh Kawlram nih vawlei hmun kong he aa pehtlai mi upadi a ngeih mi ah zei zawn ah dah chambaunak a um? (tch; Zei bantuk International Law, Convention le ramchung upadi dang he dah aa kalh? Vawlei hmun buainak a tam tuk lonak ram ah zei bantuk policy dah an hman cio?)

TYM: Hi kong ah hin cun ngeihchia ngai kan si. Atu Kawlram ah vawlei tawlrel khawhnak upadi 38 leng a um. A cheu nawn hi mirang chan in ser mi upadi an si. A dang hi Ralkap uknak chan lio i Ralkap hrihhruai pawl nih vawlei fawite an co nakhnga ding ca i lam-awnnak an rak ser mi upadi hi a tam deuh. Cu upadi pawl zong cu pakhat le pakhat aa pial kaan mi, aa kalh mi a tam ngaingai caah cozah rianṭuantu pawl zong hi an i laklawh caan a tampi.

Cu ruangah cun atu i cozah nih a tawlrel cuahmah mi Kawlram pumpi huap Vawlei Tawlrelnak Upadi (National Land Law) a ṭialtu committee lakah upadi pawl a zohṭhan i aa khahlonak le a ralkahnak zohthan ding ah Law Harmonization Committee hi a telh chih. Kanmah bantuk i vawlei he pehtlai in hmanning le humhak ning aa khat lo mi ram hna lakah i zohchunh cio mi ram pawl hi India, Philippines le Australia hi an si. Cu ram pawl ahcun Kokek miphun pawl i vawlei ngeihnak kha zapi he aa pehtlai mi upadi sin ah si loin a dang tein upadi an serpiak hna. Cun, cu vawlei he pehtlai in nawlngeihnak ṭha tein a pek hna.

CD: Chinram cozah nih vawlei hmunhma buainak kong ah an i tlaih mi Pyidaungsu Hluttaw Upadi, 2019 kum i pohmah 3/C/4, “vawlei hmunhma ngeihnak tehte a ngei lo nain pupa chan in an ngeih mi a si ko tiah zatlang nih an theihpi kha, amah he aa naihniam bik mi ramkulh cozah asiloah ramkomh cozah nih a theih pimi a si lai” timi cungah na hmuhning? Laiphung in ro a rak i pemi hna caah tah?

TYM:  2019 kum i chuah miမြေသိမ်း ဆည်းခြင်း၊ ပြန်လည်နေရာချထားခြင်း နှင့် ပြည် လည်ထူထောင်ခြင်း ဆိုင်ရာ ဥပဒေ hi Kawlram pumpi huap in soisel a tong ngai mi upadi a si. Amah hi 1894 kum i an rak ṭialmi Land Acṭuisition Act aiawh in ser ṭhan mi a si. Hi upadi hi Bill a si lio te in ruahnak tam ngai kan rak pek cio mi upadi a si, nain a donghnak ahcun kan caah thilrit a kan pe ding mi upadi ah a rak i cang ṭhan. Atu pohmah 3/C/4 zong cu kannih tlangcung miphun caah ṭih a nung ngai mi ah a cang ṭhan. Cozah nih a theihpi mi a si lai ti mi nih hin tampi eihmuarnak a chuahpi khawh i a ningcang loin cozah nih namnehnak zong a chuahpi khawh.

CD: Cozah nih ṭhanchonak tuah a duh tikah zeitindah vawlei hmun hmannak nawl a ngeih?

TYM: Hihi cu ṭhanchonak ca ṭuanvo a la dingmi Ministry nih a ngeih ve. Ministry cio nih hin vawlei an tawlrel khawh mi a um cio i cu vawlei chung in a si ahcun a herh a ti ning in hman khawh a si. Asinain, amah tawlrelnak nawl a ngeihcia mi vawlei a si lo ahcun Htuai-Oh (General Administration Department) in hin hal a si. Cun, mah vawlei hi khua zei tang ah a um, mi zei bantuk vawlei phun dah a si ti a zohhnu ah pek khawh ding a tuaktan piak. Asinain, cu vawlei cu tlangcung mi hna pupa ram chung a um mi a si ahcun cu ṭhanchonak a tuah ding mi cozah a si ah pumpak lei in an si ah Ministry of Ethnic Affairs sin in ruahnak lak dih hnu lawng ah tuannak nawl an ngei.

CD: Vawlei hmunhma buainak kong ah cozah le mipi karlak ah a bau mi thil hna zeidah an si?

TYM: Atu cu kan ngeih mi cozah hi Democracy phunglam in mipi nih thim i ser mi an si ti mi thil hi kaphnih (cozahlei zong, mipi zong) nih kan i fian a biapi ngaingai. Cu theihthiamnak cung ah a hngatchan in rianṭuan a si ahcun atu kan ton mi buainak pawl hi tampi a zor ko lai. Chin ramkulh cozah nih mipi aw-aan a ngeihnak le a laknak lam (channel) hi a um lo ti khawh a si (atu lio ah!) Cun, cozah nih zei dah tuah aa timh ti hi mipi sin ah a hlan kan in theihternak tuah hi a um lo bantuk in mipi zong nih biatak te i thlak in kherhhlainak le zohfelnak (monitor) tuah nak hi a bau mi a si.

CD: Hmalei ah vawlei kong he pehtlai in Cozah le mipi karlak itheihthiamnak a um khawhnak ding ah biacah na duh mi? 

TYM: Chin miphun cu kokek miphun hna i vawlei he pehtlai in kan covo a si mi Free, Prior and Informed, Consent ti mi, cozah nih mipi he aa pehtlai mi vawlei hmang in zei bantuk thanchonak tuah a timh paoh ah mipi sin ah a hlankaan tein theihternak tuah i ruahnak laknak hi zul kho hna sehlaw, theihthiamnak tampi a umter khawh lai.

CD: Biahalnaknak kan hrelh mi, careltu nih an theih ṭha tiah na ruah mi chapchih le bet ding na ngeih mi a um maw?

TYM: Upadi hi minung nih ser mi an si. Kan caah a ṭha lo mi, ningcang loin sungh zatlaknak a chuahter mi upadi remh khawhnak zong hi mipi kan kut chung ah a um ti hi philh hna hlah usih. Ralṭha le lungsau tein kan zapi i bawm in zuam kan hau. Atu hi Kawlram pumpi huap vawlei a tawlrel ding mi upadi, National Land Law hi an ser cuahmah lio a si. 2020-2025 kum karlak ah Hluttaw chung phanhter ding in an timh cuahmah liopi a si. 2015-2020 kum kar lak i rak sermi upadi pawl kongkau ahhin kanmah Chinram in thimnak a rak co mi kan palai hna nih Hluttaw chung ah zei pipa an rak chim kho lo. Cu ruang zong ah a tu i kan ngeihmi Forest Law, Conservation of Biodiversity and Protected Areas Law te hna pawl hi rian a ṭuan taktak ahcun kan caah ṭih a nung ding tampi an rak i tel. Cucaah, kan pupa vawlei humhak khawh nakding caah Hluttaw chung i an chuahpi mi upadi cung ah Chin miphun aiawh in fiang tein a dir kho ding mi, minung hna Hluttaw chung a phanh ding hi a biapi tuk. Kan ca i aiawhtu ding hi i palh sual lo tein an dirpi ding mi ṭha te i kherhlainak ngeih hnu ah thim hna usih ti hi zapi sawm ka duh mi hna a si.

Hi interview cu Chin Digest Vol. 6, No. 3 ah chuah cang mi a si i Online careltu caah kan hun thlah than mi a si. Hmanthlak kan hman mi hi amah Mai Thin Yu Mon pumpak Facebook ah kan lak mi an si.~ Editor

Na ruahning rak langhter ve.. (Leave a comment)

%d bloggers like this: