Thimnak le A Fekmi Ramkhel Nawlngeihnak

Thimnak le A Fekmi Ramkhel Nawlngeihnak
(Electoral politics and political legitimacy)

By Rual Lian Thang

A fekmi ramkhel nawlngeihnak (legitimate governance) kan ti tikah mipi hnatlaknak asiloah cohlannak (consent of the governed) in pekmi le lakmi nawlngeihnak khi kan chim duhmi cu a si. Ramkhel nawlngeihnak hi a phunphun in lak khawh a si tawn. Hriamnam in siseh, thazaang in siseh, ramkhel nawlngeihnak cu lak khawhmi a si. Asinain, a fekmi le phungning in cohlanmi (political legitimacy a ngeimi) nawlngeihnak belte cu sawhsawh in lak khawhmi a si lo.

Siangpahrang uknak chan ah siangpahrang fapa/tefa sinak le Pathian nih thimmi sinak (divine right of king or mandate of heaven) ti bantuk in ramkhel nawlngeihnak kha an rak fehter. Nain, Democracy uknak phung ahcun ramkhel nawlngeihnak le cozah sinak cu electoral politics timi thimnak in pek, lak, le fehter kha a si.

Hriamnam le thazaang (hramhram) nawlngeihnak (authoritarianism) cu mipi cohlannak in fehter a si lo caah political legitimacy an ngei tawn lo. Cu ruangah mipi nih cohlanmi si dingah a phunphun in an izuam tawn. A bikin sipuazi ṭhanchonak (economic performance) in mipi cohlannak lak khawh an ni zuam i a fekmi cozah le nawlngeihnak ser an i tim tawn. Cucu China le Vietnam ram tibantuk ah hmuh khawhmi a si. Tuanbia tampi kan zoh tikah mipi nih cohlanmi phungtling nawlngeihnak (political legitimacy a ngeimi) le a cozah paohpaoh hi sau an nguh i mipi nih cohlan lomi siangpahrang le nawlngeihnak pawl hi sau an nguh tawn lo. Cu ruangah a cozah tampi nih democracy phung a si mi thimnak (electoral politics) hmang in cozah sinak le a fekmi phungtling nawlngeihnak (political legitimacy) kha ser an i zuam tawn. Cu tikah ramkhel thimnak (electoral politics) hi a fekmi phungtling nawlngeihnak le cozah sernak dingah a biapi ngainga mi ah a hun cang.

Ramkhel thimnak (electoral politics) nih nawlngeihnak a fehter lawng siloin thil dangdang tampi a tuah khawh. Singapore ram tuanbia kan zoh a cun ramkhel thimnak nih mirang uknak kut tang in luatnak a rak lakter khawh hna. Singapore cu 1867 ah Crown Colony timi mirang (British) uknak kuttang an rak tla. 1942-1945 kum thum chung Japan kuttang a phan. 1945 ah Mirang cozah an rak kir ṭhan i Crown Colony ah an cang ṭhan. Mahbelte, Mirang a cozah nih executive le legislative (Hluttaw) council a ser piak hna i 1948 kum ah legislative caah a voikhatnak thimnak (election) a rak tuah piak hna. Legislative (Hluttaw) thunak 25 a um i cu chungah thutnak 6 ca lawnglawng ah thimnak an rak tuah piak hna. Thutnak 6 lakah 3 hi Singapore Progressive Party (SPP) nih an rak tei. Crown Colony asi caah nawlngeihnak surlu paohpaoh cu Mirang nih an rak tlaih dih. 1951 ah thutnak 9 caah thimnak an tuah ṭhan. Cu lio tein mah tein uknak kongkau Legislative Council ah ceihhmainak an rak tuah. 1955 ah thimnak an tuah ṭhan i hluttaw ṭhutnak 32 tiang chap a si i 25 ṭhutnak ca lawnglawng ah thimnak kha rak tuah a si.

Kawlram hluttaw i Ralkap 25% an um ve bantuk in ṭhutnak a ummi 32 lakah 7 cu Mirang cozah nih direct in a ṭhuttermi pawl an si. 1955 thimnak hnu ah Legislative Council kha Legislative Assembly tiah thleng a si i Chief Minister kha Legislative Assembly nih thim a rak si. Chief Minister cu anmah tein thim a rak si. Nain, nawlngeihnak a tungpi cu Mirang kut chungah a rak um ṭhiamṭhiam. 1959 kum cheu tiang Sir William Goode (British) cu Governor a rak si peng rih. 30 May 1959 ah general election cu ṭhutnak 51 caah rak tuah a si. Cu thimnak ahcun Singapore miphun party a simi People’s Action Party (PAP) nih ṭhutnak 43 lak in teinak an rak hmuh. Cu 1959 election teinak nih Singapore miphun party PAP an nawl ngeihnak a rak fehter lawng si lo in Mirang kuttang um an duh lonak fak ngaingai in a rak langhter.

Chin Digest_Vol 6, No. 4_Cover

Miphun Party hruaitu Lee Kuan Yew zong Singapore Prime Minister ah thim a hun si i British Crown Colony in luatnak (independence) kha tlamtling tein an rak lak. Cu lioah Singapore ram cu an sifak i thazang an rak ngei lo lengah Communist ral nih chunzaan in hnahnawhnak a rak pek hna. Cu ruangah 1963 ah Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew nih kanmah lawng in um a si kho lo a rak ti caah Malaysia he fonh in ram khat ser a rak i zuam. Asinain, Malaysia phunghrampi (Article 153) nih Malay miphun kha covo a hleihluat in a pek hna i miphun tlukruannak a um lo caah 1965 ah Lee Kuan Yew le a party nih Singapore ram cu an mah tein dir dingah biachahnak an rak tuah tthan. Singapore cu ram hmete (city state) a si caah thazang a rak ngei lo pinah communist pawl hnahnawhnak fak ngai in a rak tuar lio a si. Cu bantuk dirhmun in ram pakhat ser ding ah a rak har ngai. Nain, ral ṭha tein an rak dir i kum 25 hnuah Singapore ram cu vawlei cung ah a ṭhangcho bik le a rum bikmi ram pakhat ah a hun i chuah. Cucu ramkhel thimnak (electoral politics) in sermi ram cu a si. Lee Kuan Yew zong Singapore ram a dirhtu Pa (the founding father of Singapore) tiah vawleipi nih theih a si. Hi Singapore tuanbia nih ramkhel thimnak (electoral politics) a biapinak le a fekmi cozah le ramkhel nawl ngeihnak sernak hrampi a si nak fiang tein a langhter.

Nihin Kawlram thimnak nih Chin miphun kan lungput le duhnak a langhter lai. Chin miphun vialte nih thimfung thlak in teinak a hmu mi kha a fekmi cozah le nawlngeitu (legitimate government) an si lai. Kawl uk kan duh lo, Kawl sal si kan duh lo, mah tein khuakhannak, zalonnak le a fekmi nawlngeihnak kan duh tiah kan kaa in kan chim tawnmi pawl kha biatak asi le silo kan thimfung nih bia a hun chim cang lai. Kan thimfung hmangin uktu le nawlngeitu fehter an hun si lai. Thimnak hi Chinmi kan ca ahcun kum 5 ca i acozah thim sawhsawh khi asi lo. Chim miphun kan mah tein a ukmi ram (federal or independent ram) kan si hlan paoh cu 1959 Singapore thimnak bantuk in thimnak (election) poahpoah hi Kawl kuttang um kan duh le duh lo lanhternak “Referendum” bantuk khi an hun si.

Hitin ka chim tikah tukum 2020 thimnak kan tei ahcun federal kan ngah colh lai ti duhnak a si lo. Asinain, miphun party nih a tei ahcun federal timi mah tein khuakhan lairelnak le kawl uk kan duh lonak kha kan kaa lawnglawng in kan chim sawhsawhmi si loin Federal kan duh hrimhrim ko timi kha fektak in a langhter lai. Cu tikah Kawl nawlngeihnak le uknak cu Chin miphun nih cohlan lomi (political legitimacy a ngei lomi) uknak le uktu (ilegitimate rulers) an si timi kha vawleipi theih in kan thanh hna bantuk zong khi a si hnga. Phundang chim ahcun, kan thimfung in Kawl uknak kha cohlan a si lomi uknak (delegitimize) ah kan tuah khawh hna i, Chin miphun cungah nawlngeih tu dingah mandate a ngei lomi a cozah ah kan tuah khawh hna lai.

Nain, Chin miphun nih Kawl Party kha kan thim rih hna asi ahcun federal le mahte khuakhan lai relnak nawl kan duh tiah kan chim tawnmi pawl hi pakpalawng menmen an si ti kha a langhter hnga. Phundang chim ah cun, Chin miphun cu Chinram hrawitu si dingah Chin mipi nih cohlan lomi (mandate le legitimacy a ngei lomi) ah kan cang hnga.

Cucaah tutan thimnak hi kan chim tawnmi federal phung le mahte khuakhannak uknak nawl kan duh timi tuahsernak in langhternak “Referendum” bantuk a si pin ah, Chinram ah Chin miphun lawng Chin mipi nih cohlan mi (political legitimacy a ngeimi) nawlngeitu kan sinak lanhternak zong a hun si chih. Singapore tuanbia nih a kan hmuhsakbantuk in Chin miphun nih kan mah Miphun Party ah lungrual tein thimfung kan sanh i Chin ram ah Chin miphun nawl ngeitu asinak fehternak hi a herh ngaingaimi le a biapi ngaingai kan timi cu a si.#

Rual Lian Thang cu Thantlang peng Aibur khua mi a si. 2011-2012 ah Thailand ram Chularlongkorn University in Development Studies in Master a dih. 2013 in 2017 tiang Germany Green Party foundation a si mi Heinrich Boell Stiftung ah country program coordinator a rak tuan. Cun 2017-2018 ah Master of Environmental Science in Central European University, Europe ram ah a dih mi a si. Atulio, 2019-2020 ah Master of Environmental Management and Development in Australian National University, Australia ram ah sianginn a kai cuahmah lio a si. ~ Editor 

Na ruahning rak langhter ve.. (Leave a comment)

%d bloggers like this: