Tlangcung ti kan ngah ning le kan tihna a pehtlaih ning

By Salai Min Lian Thang| Chin Digest Vol. 6, No. 3 —

Biadomhnak: Ti cu minung kan nunnak ah tawhfung pakhat bantuk in a biapi taktak mi a si. Minung kan nunnak le ti hi zeitik hmanh ah ṭhen awk a ṭha lomi an si. “Cu ti kan ti mi cu khoika in dah kan hmuh?” ti mi biahalnak hi mahle mah i hal lengmang awk ah ka duh ngai.

Laimi cu tlang cung ah khuasa mi, kan ram le kan umnak, le kan khuasaknak hi rili in 4500 pe cung hrawnghrang cung ah khuasa mi kan si. Tikah, ti kan hmuhnak ding ah a san nakin a niamnak ah a luang mi (Gravity Flow) deuh hi ti laknak ah kan hman. Cu tikah, tihna timi (Watershed) kan va laknak a hram hi a biapi tuk mi ah a cang. Zeicatiah, kan tihna cu kum fatin, thla fatin a thatlo ahcun khuakip le pengkip ah ti harnak kan tong ṭheo tawn. Curuangah, Laimi nih kan tihna lak nak (watershed area) kha tha tein kan kilkawi le kan zohkhenh ding kha, kan rian biapi tuk mi a si. Kannih laitlang ahcun tihna (watershed) hi cinthlaknak lawng si loin inn herhhai (domestic use) ah a biapi bikin kan hman mi zong a si fawn. Tihna (watershed) timi cu Pokhara Nepal khuate (village), North America, India ram thenkhat, cinthlak nak le inn lo herhhai… tbk hna ah an hman. A biapi khun in kannih Lairam ahcun khuapi Hakha siseh, Thantlang siseh, a biapi bik in tihna (watershed) in ti thazaang (water resources) kan hmuhnak a si caah a hleikhun in a biapitnak a si. Cu ruangah, kan tihna laknak (watershed area) hna kha khuapi kan ser lai,  khua kan kauh lai, zolo kan tuah lai…tbk kan ti tikah vawlei tawlrel ning (land use management) le tupi tawlrel ning (forest management) hna hi a biapi ah kan chiah lo si ahcun hmailei ti kan hmuh nakding ah ṭihnung tuk mi an si.

Tihna (watershed) cu zeidah  a si?

Tihna (watershed) ti mi cu miring holh in (drainage basin) asiloah (catchment area) ti zong in an auh. Phundang in chim ahcun ti kan lak nak hmunhma, tlangcung asiloah tivahor in a hung luang cio mi, a kenkip in a niam biknak ah a um mi tiva ah an van i fonh nak hmun kha a sawh duh mi a si. Tiva hor fa tete hna, tlang karlak i varek tete hna, tiva a luan khawh nak ding ah tlangpang horkuang in avan i fonh mi tiva le tiva aisem nak vialte kha tihna timi (watershed) nih a sawh duh mi cu an si.

Zei ruangah dah tihna (watershed) a biapit tiah cun tlangcung siseh, rawn in siseh, valeihmai (surface) cung i a um mi ti vialte kha vate siseh, vapi siseh ai thoknak hmunhma a si caah a si. Cu bantuk nih ti varek fa tete an i fonh hnu ah ti thazaang a ṭhawnnak ding le ti a luan kawhnak ding kha a bawmh hna i a thanchoter hna caah tiva an um khawhnak a si. Tahchunhnak ah Thantlang, nitlaklei i a um mi, Lahva hna khi Rulpi va, Tumzung va, Raciah va … tbk tiva fa tete tampi le a mah a tihna ai thoknak pawl an i fonh hnu ah tiva bantuk in a luan kawhnak a si.

Pawngkam (environment) le Tihna (watershed) ai pehtlaih ning

Tihna laknak hmun (watershed area) kan ti tikah a pawngkam thingkung le a tlanghrawn umtu ning he ai pehtlai colh mi a si. Zecatiah, tlangpang pakhat i a cunglei (upstream land) thingkung ramkung umtu ning nih a tanglei (downstream land) ti thazaang (water ṭuality) a ṭhawn le ṭhawn lo kha ai hngat mi a si. Banabia ah a cunglei ah thinkung le ramkung an tlawm le an um lo sual si ahcun a tanglei ah ti a luang mi a tlawm deuh tinak a si. Cu raungah, a cunglei (upstream land) ah um mi tupi a ṭhat le ṭhat lo hi a tanglei tiva caah a biapi taktak mi a si.

Cunglei tupi (upstream forest) a kawngh ahcun fur caan phanh tikah a tang tlangpang horkuang lei in siseh, a cunglei in siseh, kha pawng hrawng in chunhmi lam…tbk hna kha thinghram nih vawlei atleih ti lo tikah vawlei cimh (soil erosion), vawlei tolh…tbk zong a chuak tawn. Cucaah,  tlanglo tuahning siseh, vawlei tawlrelning siseh, lam chunhning ah siseh, a cunglei (upstream) le a tanglei (downstream) a pehtlaihning le tupi umtuning kha tha tein kan zoh chih ahau pengmi a si.

Tihna tawlrel ning (watershed management) le phungphai (policy and law)

Tihna tawlrel ning (watershed management) ti tikah phung le phai (policy and law) kha a biapi bik ah chiah a hau. Vawlei huap in ti tawlrelning (water management) ah thiamsannak (technological) le a cunglei nih tlangtlaknak (centralize) nak lawng in a tlamtling kho lo. A dikthlir mi phung le phai (policy and law) a um lo tikah pawngkam thingkung le saram pehtlaih ning (ecosystem) le tihna (watershed) zoh khennak kha a chambau tawn.

2010 kum tiang ahcun Kawlram huap in ti tawlreltu a si mi hna, tupi tawlreltu (Forestry Ministry), pawngkam tawlreltu (Environment Conservation), cinthlak le ti peknak kong tawlreltu (Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation) le ramri zohkhenhtu (Ministry of Border Affairs) hna nih tawlrel nak phungphai (policy and law) hna kha tha tein an rak ngei lo. 2012 kum ah  Kawlram pumpi huap in ti tawlrel ning (watershed management) phung le phai (policy and law) hna cu an rak ser. Kan Laitlang ahcun ti thenphawt ning (water management) cu sipin (municipal) nih ṭuanvo an rak lak. Asinain, kha phung le phai kha ramkulh cio ah ṭuanchuahnak (implementation) lei kap ah an tha der ngai. Tikah, Hakha siseh, Thantlang siseh, anmah tein (locally) ram umtu ning le pawngkam sining he pehtlai in sermi phung le phai (policy and law)  cu sipin (municipal) nih a ngeih lo tikah mipi nih ti kan  hmuh mi a tlawm ngai ngai.

Cu ruangah, ṭuanvo ngeitu nih khua le ram sining he aitlak ning in ti ṭhenphawt ning (water management) kong ah phung le phai (policy le law) ngeih chuah khawhnak le ṭuanchuah khawhnak (implementation) lawng nih rianṭuan mi hmual a ngeihter lai. Mipi nih duhdim tein ti kan hmuh khawh lai.

I fonh in ṭuanchuah ṭinak (Integrated water resources management concept)

Ti ṭhen phawtnak tuah tikah i fonh in ṭuanchuah ṭinak nih pawngkam (environmental) sining pawl, thingkung keuh ningcang, vawlei umtu ning, non chuahning (soil nutrient) lawng siloin zatlang chawleh chawhrawlnak (social economic) le ti thazaang i zatnak kha a chuah ter. Vawleicung minung kan karh bantukin rawl caah siseh, inn hmanding (domestic use) caah siseh, ti kan hmanning kha a karh vima. Vawleicung i ti thazaang (water resources) zong kha kum khat hnu kum khat in a tlawm deuh thuahmah ve. A hlei in, kan nih bantuk misifak ram hna ahcun ti laknak caah a zatawk in hmanding phaisa, cozah lei in chiahpiakmi phaisa thazaang (financial resources) le thilri (instrument) hna kha a tlawm ngai. Cucaah,  i fonh in ṭuan chuah ṭinak (Integrated water resources management) kha a herhtuk nak a si.

Tu chanthar uk ning ah cun, i fonh in ṭuanṭi khawhnak (coordination and cooperation) hna hi zei bantuk zung, bu (organization) zong ah hman khawh mi a si cang. Tikah, a biapi bik mi cu phung le phai (law and policy) in siseh, mah umnak hmun i bu (local institution) hna i teltumnak, zatlang bu (community) in ramkomh bu (national level) tiang in siseh, i fonh in ti ṭhen phawt/tawlrelnak rianṭuantu phu (water resources management agencies) hna kha a hmun ding in ser khawh khi a biapi tukmi a si. Cucaah, kanmah ram sining he aitlak in sermi phung le phai (policy and law), a hmu mi bu (sustainable organization) le kan pawngkam humhakter (sustainable environment) kho tu bu hna, kan serchuah khawh ah cun mipi nih a zatawk le duhdim tein ti kan tinco ko lai.

Biafunak

A cunglei i ka lannghter bang, ti cu minung kan nunnak i a herh bik mi pakhat ah aa telmi a si. Cucaah, Laitlang ummi kannih Laimi zong, a hmun mi ti thazaang (sustainable water resources) kan ngeih le kan tihna (watershed area) hna zong tha tein kan kilkawi hna hi a biapi tuk mi an si. Laitlang ti kan hmuhnak cu a sannak in a niamnak ah a luangmi (gravity flow) an si tikah kan tihna laknak (watershed area) hna kha, phung le phai (policy le law) in kilkamh le dirkamh khawh, a biapi ngai ngai. Khatlei ah, sipin (municipal) in siseh, inntek zatlang bu (local community) le cozah zung dangdang zong I fonh hna in (integrated water resources management concept) kan zapi tein kan tuanti ahcun Laitlang ti kan hmuhning hi a hmunmi (sustainable) a si lengah a himmi le a hmunmi pawngkam (sustainable environment) zong ah kan ser khawh lai. A donghnak ah, tuanvo ngeitu le tawlreltu nih nawl a chuahmi phung le phai (policy le law) hna kha mipi nih tha tein kan zulh i hmunkhat le lungkhat in kan tuanti hna ahcun a nuammi Laitlang, ti a har tilo mi Laitlang ah kan sersiam khawh ko lai.

Cherhchan;

World Bank, (2008). Watershed Management Approaches, Polocies, and Operations; Lessons for Scaling Up, Retrieved from New York:

UNESCO, I. (2014), Myanmar Integrated Water Resources Management Strategic Studies Retrieved From Yangon.

Chin Digest Vol. 6, No. 3 ah chuah mi Capar a si. ~ Editor

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