2020 Myanmar Ram Thimnak Tungtlang Kherhlainak

Salai Chan Bik Ceu| Chin Digest Vol. 6, No. 4 —

2020 Myanmar Ram Thimnak Tungtlang Kherhlainak

Biahram domh

1947, February 12 ah ser thar mi ram cu a min ah “Union of Burma” ti a si i, Kawl holh in “Union” ti cu “Pyitaungsuh” tinak a si. Pyitaungsuh ti mi cu Kawl holh in “pyi–ram”, “taung–ser” le “suh—fonh/komh” kha a si caah Union of Burma i a sullam cu aa dang mi miphun hna kha fonh/komh i ram pakhat ser ti mi sullam a rak si. Chin, Kachin, Shan le Kawl nih Panglong khua ah an i fonh i, ram pakhat an ser ti mi sullam a si. Cu ruangah 1947, February 12 hnu cun aa dang mi miphun Chin, Kachin, Shan le Kawl pawl cu ram pakhat an hung si. Panglong tonpumhnak cu Mirang sin in zalennak hmuh awk saduhthah le hmailei ram sersiamnak saduhthah pahnih aa fonh mi a rak si. Cucaah, Panglong an ṭhut hnu, Mirang pen lio 1947 April 9 ah ser thar mi ram caah thimnak an rak tuah cia i, General Aung San hruai mi Anti-Fascist People’s Freedom League (AFPFL) nih teinak a rak hmuh.1 Hihi Union of Burma i a hmasa bik thimnak ti khawh a si. Cu hnu cun, thimnak cu voi thum (1951-1952, 1956 le 1960) tuah a rak si. 1961, June 16 Taunggyi Conference nih tlangcungmi covo hal mi cu U Nu nih 1962 February 24 ah ceih hmai ding ah Rangon ah “Federal Seminar” a rak auh nain an tuah dih hlan ah Newin nih 1962, March 2 ah uknak a rak lak. Newin nih 1974 tiang phunghram loin a rak uk. 1974 ah phunghram a chuah i, 1985 tiang ah thimnak voi 4 a rak tuah. Anih tuah mi thimnak cu one party system election a rak si leng ah free and fair a rak si lo caah democracy mit in cun rel a si lo. 1990 ah thimnak cu multi-party election system in rak tuah a si. Cucu parliamentary system chan i an rak tuah mi bantuk kha a rak si. National League for Democracy (NLD) nih National Unity Party (NUP) ti mi Newin party tharchuah mi cu ceilak a rak tei.2 Sihmansehlaw, ralkap nih uknak an pe duh hna lo i, phunghram loin 2008 tiang an kan hruai. 2008 ah February 2 ah 2008 phunghrampi a rak chuak. Cu phunghram ning in nihin tiang kan i hruai.

2020 November 8 (Sunday) ah tuah ding ram pumpi thimnak cu 2008 phunghram zul in tuah mi general election a voi 3 nak a si lai. A voi khatnak cu 2010 ah a rak si i, free and fair election a si lo ti ruangah party tampi an nuar i USDA in USDP party tiah min thlen mi party nih teinak a hmuh. 2015 cu NLD nih a tei ve. Hei tuak chunh tikah 2015 i cozah a chuak mi cu ram mi nih thim mi an si ti khawh a si. Cucaah, 2020 thimnak hi a biapinak cu ram mi thim mi cozah nih zeitin thimnak a tuah lai ti mi hi a si. Hi capar ah cun hakkauh nawn in pakhatnak ah thimnak tuah hrimhrim a herhnak ka hun langter. Pahnihnak, UEC thim phung a chambaunak tiah ka ruah mi ka hun langhter. A donghnak bik cu 2020 thimnak ah zeidah a cang kho hnga tiah ka ruah mi ka hun langhter.

  1. THIMNAK TUAH HRIMHRIM A HERHNAK

2020 kum chung ah thimnak a tuah mi ram le a tuah ding ram an um bantukin COVID-19 ruangah thimnak a let mi zong an um ve. South Korea nih hluttaw thimnak cu April thla ah an tuah. US presidential election zong, November 3 ah tuah ding timhtuahnak ngeih a si. Hi tluk in thih le loh karlak ah zeiruang ah thimnak hi an tuah ti mi hi, mi tampi nih theih a herh mi le theih duh ngai mi a hung si. 2008 phunghrampi nih a onh mi thim khawh mi 75% ning in 2010 thimnak le 2015 thimnak ah thimnak rak tuah dih khawh a si lo. 2010 lio ah phunghrampi nih a onh mi thim hmun 1171 chung ah UEC nih thim hmun 1154 lawng ah thimnak a tuah khawh. Cun, 2015 ah thim hmun 21 ah thimnak an rak tuah lo. Sihmansehlaw, hiti thimnak tuah khawh lonak um ko hmanh seh law, cozah sernak caah siseh democratization lei kan kalnak ah hnahnawhnak tampi a um lem lo. 2020 thimnak zong ah thim hmun tampi ah thimnak tuah khawh lo ding dawnkhantu an um kho men. COVID-19 ruang zong ah a si kho i, ramchung ral ruang zong ah a si kho. Nihin tiang kan ton mi ah cun COVID-19 ruangah a si bik lai tiah hmuh khawh a si. Harnak a um zong ah thimnak tuah a herhnak cu 2008 phunghrampi nih ram mi thim mi party NLD nih cozah a tlaih a voi khatnak a si caah a si. Amah hruainak in thimnak a tuah lo ahcun democracy phung he aa kalh in ram a hruai ti khawh a si. Ralkap (Dictator) pawl nih thimnak an tuah lonak cu uknak power mi sin ah pek an duh lo ruangah a si. Kanmah nih kan uk zungzal lai ti mi saduhthah an ngeih caah a si. Cucu democracy he aa kalh tuk mi hramhram uk ning (dictatorship) a si. Cu ruangah, kha ruangah, zawtnak ruangah, buainak ruangah tibantuk konglam char in thimnak tuah lo cu hramhram uk duhtu (dictatorship) pawl nih an tuah tawn mi a si. Cucaah, NLD nih democracy ning in ram ka hruai ko a ti khawh nakhnga thimnak cu a tuah hrimhrim a herh.

Ram mi nih aiawhtu thim in uk mi democracy phung cu indirect democracy a si. Cucu “aiawhtu” an chuah khawh nakhnga thimfung thlak hrimhrim a herh. A ruang cu thimfung thlak lo ahcun indirect democracy kha a si thiam lo. Indirect democracy a si thiam lo ti mi sullam cu democracy a chuak thiam lo tinak a si. Cucaah, democracy a duh mi nih thimfung thlak hrimhrim a herh. Ramdang ah cun thimnak kha i tel ding hrim in biakhiahnak a tuah mi zong an um. Ram mi paoh kha thimfung an thlakter hna tinak a si. Cu hna lak ah Argentina (1912) le Brazil te pawl hi an i tel ve. Vawlei cung ram 27 (13%) nih thimfung pek hrimhrim ding (compulsory voting) kha an hman.3 Cuti si loin, thimfung pek khawhnak caah phaisa in bawmhnak a pe mi zong an um ve. Kuwait cozah nih thimfung peknak ding caah vanlawng ticket kha ram mi cheukhat a lak in an rak pek bal hna. 1990 ah S.Korea zong nih thimfung kha phaisa 5000 won phalh in an rak pek. Cuti an tuahnak cu mipi nih thimnak ah an i tel khawhnak caah a si. Mipi nih thimnak ah thimfung kan thlak lawng ah a dik mi democracy kan si lai tinak kha a si. Cucaah, 2020 thimnak ah thimfung thlak cu rak tlolh hrim hlah!

III. UEC Dun le Dan, A Thazaang Dernak Kherhhlainak

UEC nih 2008 phunghram ning in thimhmun kip ah thimnak an tuah khawh lo mi cu ethnic conflicts he aa pehtlai mi issue a si. 2020 kum ah tah thim hmun zeizah ah thimnak an tuah khawh lai ti mi hi a biapi tuk. A ruang cu democracy lei ah aa thleng cuahmah mi (Myanmar democratization period) Kawlram ah a biapi bik mi “2008 Phunghram remhnak” ding palai (candidate) milu ruangah a si. UEC nih tawlrel ning lakah zalonnak le tlukruannak um mi thimnak (free and fair election) si ding ah dawntu a si hnga maw tiah ka ruah mi pakhat a um. Cucu “paper ballot – thimfung thlaknak catlap ṭial ning” khi a si. Thimfung thlaknak catlap i mi min ṭial a si tikah Doctor, U, Daw, Ma le Mg…tbk hi min hmai ah telh lengmang a si. Hi kong ah kherhhlainak (research) tampi a chuak rih lo nain thimfung thlatu nih a zoh tikah zei nih dah a lung a lak bik hnga ti hi ruah a herh. Biana ah, thimfung thlatu nih a duh mi MP thim ding kong ah zei hmanh a thei hnga lo. Min tar mi ballot paper a zoh tikah Dr. ti mi min hmai cuang ah a hmuh ahcun a lung a lak khawh colh. Zeiruang ah ti ahcun Myanmar ram mi kan lungput ah doctor cu cawnnak lei kan upat mi hna an si. Hi nih a chim duh mi cu thimfung catlap ah min ṭial a si bak ah doctor tiah ṭial mi pa nih mi lung a lak cia tinak a si. Ram tampi nih ballot paper an ṭial ning kan zoh ahcun USA ah cun an palai (candidate) min hmai ah number siseh, degree le doctor an telh lo. Hi bantuk an telh lonak cu thimfung catlap ah palai (candidate) pawl i khat hna seh tinak caah a si. Ahohmanh a sining an cawisang hlei lo i, upatnak an pe hlei lo, a ṭum chukter lo mi ballot paper hi Myanmar ram zong ah a rak herh ve. Pahnihnak cu UEC nih thimphung first-past-the-post (FPTP) kong hi chim ka duh. FPTP phung cu thimfung tampi a hmu mi nih teinak hmuh khawh a si. Cucu a tak ah kherhhlai tikah buainak zeidah a chuak kho ti ahcun thimhmun pakhat ah miphun pahnih an um hnga. Miphun A le miphun B tiah hei ti chun usih. Miphun A kha milu 54% an si i, Miphun B kha milu 46% an si. Thimnak an tuah tikah Miphun A nih an miphun hawi a si mi thimfung an thlak dih. Miphun B zong nih an miphun hawi thimfung an thlak dih ko. Sihmansehlaw, milu an i dan ruangah miphun A le miphun B aiawhtu cu miphun A minung a hung si. Teitu miphun A palai nih rian a ṭuan tikah miphun B kha thimfung a ka thla lo mi miphun B tiah a ti khawh mi a si. Hika zawn hi nihin Chinram ah tampi kan hmuh khawh mi a si. Tc, Henry Van Thio nih Hnaring a ṭanh deuh, nain Zophei le Mara a kan philh…tbk!.

  1. 2020 Thimnak ah Zeidah A Cang Kho?

2020 thimnak ah zeidah a cang kho ti mi langhter ding ah pakhatnak ah party a karh ning zoh a herh. Pahnihnak ah NLD i cozah a tlaih chung a rian ṭuan ning le pathumnak ah NLD a dirh onhtu (opposite party an dirhmun) hna an si.

  1. 2020 thimnak Party Tlawm tam zohnak
    (a) Union Election Commission (UEC) nih thawng a thanh ning ah 2010 thimnak ah palai 3069 (independent 82) nih thimnak an rak i cuh. UEC nih 2010 thimnak zuam ding a sok mi ramkhel party chung ah party 42 an cohlan. Party pakhat nih thimhmun hmun 3 caah mi ngei seh ti mi ruangah UEC nih thimnak zuamnak a sok mi chung in cohlan a si cang mi party 42 chung ah party 5 nih palai tling in an chuah khawh lo caah 2010 thimnak ah cun party 37 lawng an rak i zuam. Hi party 37 chung ah hin 33 cu dirh thar party an si i, a dang 4 cu a rak um cia party a si.4

(b) 2015 thimnak ah ram pumpi thimnak ah palai 6,189 nih an i cuh. Hi chung ah 1172 palai nih Pyithu Hluttaw ṭhutnak 330 an i cuh i, Palai 915 nih Amyota Hluttaw ṭhutnak 168 an i cuh. Cun, Palai 3504 nih ramṭhen ṭhen 14 i hluttaw thimnak ṭhutdan 673 an i cuh ve. Palai 5866 cu ramkhel party 92 aiawh in an i zuam lioah Palai 323 cu pumpak palai (Independent) in an i zuam ve. 2015 cu NLD nih 1990 Ramhun Thimnak (general election) hnu in a voi hnihnak Ramhun Thimnak ah aa zuam a si. 2015 thimnak ah NLD nih ram pumpaluk ah ṭhutdan 886 a hmuh. Chin ram ah cun NLD nih ṭhutdan 12 an co i, USDP nih 4 an co. A tang mi pahnih cu ZCD nih an co, ralkap nih tin mi 6 he fonh ahcun MP 24 an si.5

(c ) 2020 ah thimnak ah party 128 nih cozah theihpinak (register) an tuah nain 34 cu hnon an si (Party 34 chung ah a nung ti lo mi party zong a um ve). Cucaah, party 94 nih thimnak an i cuh lai.6 2020 thimnak phun dang a sinak cu Kawl rawn ah party thar an karh leng ah tlangcung zong ah 2015 thimnak ah anmah miphun nih an lung aa rual lo an ti mi party hna kha pakhat ah an hun i fonh hna. Phundang in 2015 thimnak nakin 2020 ahcun miphun party a hung karh deuh. NLD nih a hruai mi hna an lung a tlin lo ruangah siseh, Kawl rawn ah party a tam ruangah 2020 thimnak ahcun 2015 bantukin NLD nih fawi tein tei lo khawh a si.

  1. NLD Rian Ṭuan Ning Zohnak

Chin ram ah NLD a uar lo hna nih an chim mi bia pahnih a um. Cucu a tanglei bantukin an si.

VFV Phung An Ser mi: Vacant Land, Fallow Land le Virgin Land phung tiah an ti. A fawinak in Vawlei hrim, Vawlei luat, Vawlei lawng tiah an ti. Cucu Chinmi nih kum 500 hrawng kan rak hman cang mi kan phung “Chin customary law” he aa ralkah. Fiang deuh in chim ahcun, “pupa ram a um lo” ti a si. Pupa ram a um lo caah ram ngeitu tiah ruah mi nih cozah sin ah laisen sok siseh, ngeih caan cu kum 30 a si. Laisen thla ruk chung ah a sok lo cun kum 2 thong siloah 500,000 kyats dantat a si lai ti a um. Kherhhlainak a tuah mi cheukhat nih an chim mi cu VFV phung nih tlangcungmi nih kum zaza an ngeih mi ram le vawlei kha kum 30 he a thlenter. Kum 30 he thlennak a tuah lo le laisen tuah lo ahcun dantatnak tuah khawh a si fawn. Hi phung hi mitlawm-u (minority) va namneh a si. Fiang deuh in chim ahcun, democracy ah a biapi mi mitlawm-u covo (minority rights) zei a rel lo a si, an ti. Hi VFV phung ruangah tlangcung ram vialte i 82% ah vawlei kong buainak a chuak.6 Chinram i buainak a tam bik cu vawlei hmun le ram hmun kong a si, tiah The Chinland Post nih a ṭial.

Miphun hme nunphung le ca kilvennak a um lo: Ralkap chan ah cun nah-tah-lah cu nupa ngei lo ngakchia zohkhennak bantukin an rak tuah. Nain, a chung tak zoh tikah Buddhist a ṭhancho ding in acozah nih a rak i timh mi bu a rak si. A cozah nih nah-tah-lah ca ah cozah phaisa a rak thlakpiak lengmang. Chinram Khrihfa ca ah a cozah nih phaisa zei zah dah a thlak bal ti ruah ahcun, biaknak ah i tlukruan lonak (ineṭuality in religion) kan hmuh khawh. Nihin NLD nih tlancungmi ca le holh kong ah zeidah a tuah? Chinram cozah nih Laica le Lai tuanbia cawnpiaknak a tuah bal maw? A tuah bal lo. Nihin Sianginn um dan cu ralkap chan sianginn um dan he aa khat. Mitlawm-u  (Minority) hna i an nuhrin covo a si mi cu 2008 phunghram tang in tuahpiak le zohkhenhpiak khawh a si. Zohkhenh le tuahpiak khawh lo hmanh ah a tuahtu kha bawmhchanh (support) khawh a si. Sinain, hi bantuk cu NLD nih a tuah lo, ti a si.

Hi pahnih te ruangah Chinram lawng si loin tlangcung ram tampi ah NLD thapek ning cu tam ngai in a hung zor. A zor lawng si loin miphun party ti bantuk an hung chuak. Miphun party aa ti mi party hna nih, “kan covo kan lak ṭhan lai,” an ti. Cucu “covo” ti mi cu 1947 i Chan Htun version phunghram nih a hrin i, nihin tiang Daw Aung San Suh Kyi nih a pek rih lo mi hna kha an chim duh mi a si. Cucu khoika ah a um hnga a tanglei ah ka hun langhter.

  1. NLD A Dirh Onhtu Party Asiloah NLD He Ai Zuam Ding Party

Thimnak cu zuamnak pakhat a si. Player A a thazaang dernak le a ṭhawnnak kha player B nih a theih a herh. NLD cu paih bual in kan chim ahcun paih bual ah mi a tei cuahmah mi paṭhawng pakhat a si i, dirh onhtu party (opposite party) cu NLD a chuah hnawh ding pa a si. Zeitin NLD a tei lai maw ti cu amah (a chuak ding) a dirhmun cung ah tampi aa hngat. Cucaah 2020 thimnak zoh tikah NLD he aa zuamcawh ding party hna i an dirhmun kha theih a herh. Myanmar ram pumpi cu a kauh deuh caah Chin ram in ka hun cuanh lai. Tlangcung ram hna i NLD cung ah an lungsi lonak cu a cunglei ah ka hun langhter cang. Khi ka langhter mi khi CNLD nih kan i timh ti a si. CNLD tlaihtleng cu “time to regain our rights” ti mi “kan covo lak ṭhan caan a cu cang” ti a um. Zeitin an lak lai? Ruah a phu. Thimfung thla caah i fian lonak a chuahpi kho mi pakhat cu “regain—lak ṭhan” ti mi hi a si. “Regain” ti mi rak ngeih bal nain rak sungh mi kha ngeih ṭhan khi a si. Kan ngeih bal mi Chin huap in phunghram, kan covo pawl kan zoh tikah democracy he aa tlak ngaingai mi a rak um lo. Chin Acts Regulation cu Bawi le Sal hram bunh in Mirang nih an kut ah an lak hlan i, an bawi kha khua uktu ah an serter mi phung a rak si. 1947 Panglong i, Aung San version phunghram cu Chan Htun version nih a rak thah. Cucaah, “lak ṭhan” ti mi hi “khoika in a si lai” ti kha fiang tein langhter a herh. A pahnihnak i CNLD dirhmun kan zoh ahcun Hakha le Thantlang lei nih cun Falam lei in an haotu (Chairman) pakhatpa ruangah an uar lo ngai. NLD a uar lo mi hmanh kha khi pa ruangah CNLD ah an i fu kho lo. Hakha peng pa, pakhat pa nih a chim mi cu, “CNLD an sungh cun khi pa ruang khin a si ko lai,” a ti. Cun, Hakha in Matupi lam cung ah a um mi khua pakhat ah khua a sa mi cheukhat nih cun, “CNF a um lio ah kan unau a thattu pa hruai mi CNLD an si. Anmah sin ah thimfung thlaknak cun kan duh lo mi NLD kan thim deuh lai,” an ti ve. Hi bantuk bia tete kong ah CNLD nih cun kan dirhmun an i fiang lo i a si an ti ve. Fiang lak in an chim khawh lo ahcun thimfung tam ngai an sung lai ti mi sullam a hung si hnga.

  1. Bia donghnak

Myanmar ram nih a hman mi democracy phung cu indirect democracy phung a si. A iawhtu kha thim a si. A iawhtu cu phunghram ning in rian na ṭuan lai tiah fial kha “direct democracy” cu a si. Cucu democracy phung hman khawh nakhnga aiawhtu thim cu a herh. A iawhtu thim lo ahcun aiawhtu an chuah khawh lo caah indirect democracy si khawh a si lo. Cucaah, democracy a duh tak mi Chinmi kan si ahcun thimfung kan thlak hrimhrim a herh. Thimfung kan thlak lawng ah ram mi nih uk mi “democracy” a chuak lai. “Thimfung pakhat” nih ram pakhat a hrawh khawh bantukin ram pakhat a ṭhanter khawh caah thimfung thlak lai ah ṭha tein tuak a herh. Cun, a pahnihnak cu UEC hi thimnak a tuahtu an si caah democracy phung kan kalnak ah ballot paper an hmang mi ah mi pakhatkhat “ṭanh hlei a ngei mi” ka lawhter hna. Dr. U, Daw, Mg le Ma… tbk in ṭialnak nih zei bantuk thil a chuah khawh ti cu dotthlatnak (research) an tuah mi a um rih rua lo nain ramdang ah khi bantuk khi palai (candidate) an min hmai ah an chiah lonak cu mi pakhatkhat va ṭanh hlei le va cawisannak kha ballot paper ah um hlah seh ti duh ruangah a si. Phungdang in “tlukruannak–eṭuality” kha ballot paper ah a um a herh tinak a si. Thimphung PR le FPTP kong cu nihin Myanmar ramkhel cahmai ah ceih lengmang mi an si. Tlangcungmi tampi nih PR an duhnak kong an chimnak cu mitlawm-u covo (minority rights) kilven ruah ah a si. Hi pahnih te ruangah hin UEC nih tuah mi thimnak ah tlukruannak (eṭuality) a chambau tiah ka ruah. Cun, 2020 thimnak ah zeidah a cang kho ti mi cu dirh onhtu party (opposite party) hna i an dirhmun he tampi aa pehtlai. 2020 thimnak cu 2015 thimnak bantuk a si ti lonak cu pakhatnak ah NLD a derthawmnak mi tampi nih an theih cang. Party ṭhawng tampi an karh. Tlangcungmi nih miphun party an hun ser hna. Hi bantuk ruang tete ah NLD thazaang hi 2015 nakin zeimaw zat a der hrim lai ti hi ruah damh khawh a si. Cucaah, fonhkomh cozah (Coalition Government) zong a si khawhnak lam a um ve.

References

Lian H Sakhong, “The Dynamics Sixty Years of Ethnic Armed Conflicts in Burma. P. 6-7.

Chan Bik Ceu, The Study on Myanmar Election: What Make the Difference Result Between 2010 Election and 2015 Election” p. 2-3.

International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (IDEA), COMPULSORY VOTING (https://www.idea.int/data-tools/data/voter-turnout/compulsory-voting).

Full details of the cancellations are in Union Election Commission Notifications 61-65 and 67/2015, 12 and 27 October 2015

Union Election Commission (https://www.uec.gov.mm/)

Legal Review of Recently Enacted Farmland Law and Vacant, Fallow and Virgin Lands Management Law Improving the Legal & Policy Frameworks Relating to Land Management in Myanmar. Published by Food Security Working Group’s Land Core Group on November 2012.

Matt Golder, Sona Nadenichek Golder, and William Roberts Clark, Principles of Comparative Politics (Second Edition). P. 535-560.


Salai Chan Bik Ceu cu B.Sc, Industrial Chemistry in Yadanabon University ah a dih. S. Korea  Seoul ah B.A (Dip), Korea Language, Chongsin University in a dih. Atu hi M.A in Political Science and International Studies in National University (S. Korea) ah a kai cuahmah liomi a si.

Chin Digest Vol. 6, No. 4 (November 2020) ah chuah mi a si. Cauk a phanh khawh lo nak a tam caah Online in thazaang a kan petu caah kan rak thlah ṭhan mi a si. ~ Editor

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