Tulio Hong Kong Buainak Le Hnulei Tuanbia

By Chan Bik Ceu (Korea)| 2019 June 14 — Hong Kong cu “Queen Victoria nih a hruaimi Mirang nih a lak hlan ahcun China (Tuluk) ram i tikulh pakhat te khi a rak si. China pennak tang ah kum 2,000 leng a rak ummi a si. Mirang le China karlak ral i dohnak “First Opium War” timi hi 1839 – 1842 tiang a rak um. Bristish nih China i Hong Kong a lak cu Jan. 25, 1841 ah a rak si.

Hong Kong: Duhlonak Langhternak (2019 June 10)

Atulio Hong Kong le China Buainak

Hong Kong rammi nih China nih Hong Kong a nawlngeihnak kong ah aa thlak tuk timi ruang tete hin an ram ah China duhlonak langhtermi tete hi a rak um lengmang. Cucu 1989 i Tiananmen Square te khan a rak si cang. 2002 ah tuahmi Democracy ram an si kum 5nak lomh puai ah China President Jiang Zemin nih Hong Kong i lomhnak puai cu a va lomhpi hna. Hi tan ahhin Hong Kong Chief Executive, Tung Chee-hwa a duh lomi cu mibuu cu lamcung ah lamzawh in duhlonak an rak langhter. Hi ruang ah China President Jiang Zemen nih “Hong Kong cozah nih na rammi kong ah rian ttha te in ttuan u, “China a kir bak in a rak ti hna. Tung hruainak an duh lonak bik cu ministers 14 hi amah duhte in a thim ca ah a si, an ti (The Guadian).

Biatak te in China kong ah Hong Kong ram chung i buainak a chuah cu 2014 in mino deuh nih cun kan hngalhmi a si. Hihi an buaibiknak cu Beijing nih Hong Kong hruaitu lubik (Chief Executive) thimding le candidates aa zuam ding paoh kha Beijing nih approve hmasa talai timi ruang ah a si. Cucu duhlonak a langhter pawl nih ‘Direct democracy’ a hrawhtu a si an ti. Hi phung cu China caah a si an ti. Amah Hong Kong ram chung hrimhrim ahhin China uartu hi an um pah ngai ruang ah Hong Kong mibuu cu:

  • China a uar mi (Kan i fonh dih awk a si cang ko)
  • Hongkong i a nawl ngeihnak cu amah ta a si ko ti’n phu hnih in an um

2019, June thla

Tuzarh hrawng i buainak cu “Extradition law” timi a sualmi “pakhatkhat kha ram (ramdang) sinah kuat, hluai ding” timi a si. Nain, a fawinak in cun Hong Kong i suallnak a tuahmi, phun dang in cun China cozah a dodaltu le soiseltu kha Hong Kong cozah nih China rampi (khualipi Beijing) ah kuat ding in cohlan a timh caah a chuakmi buaibainak a si. 2019 June 13 tiang ahcun duhlo langhternak an tuahning hi a fak chin duahmah. Minung 79 tluk cu duhlonak an langhter ruang ah palik nih fak tuk in an kham i, hma an pu cang (CNN). Mitthli thlakter khotu gas (fired tear gas) in an cheh hna. Hong Kong hruaitu nu Carrie Lam nih cun hi “Extration law” cu kan herhmi hrimhrim a si caah an doh zong ah kan tuah hrimhrim ko lai a ti.

Aruang cu:
“Hi law (phungphai) hi a buaibai ngai ti ka hngal ko. Nain Hongkong cu misual pawl tliknak ram dirhmun in kilven khawhnak ah hihi tuah a hau,” a ti.

Dodaltu le duhlonak in autu hna nih an chim ve mi cu hi phungphai a nun (law a pass) ahcun Hong Kong ramkhel kong ah China aa thlak tuk lai. Nihin i kan ngeihmi zalonnak hna hi an lotlau dih lai, an ti.

Hi bantuk i, cozah le rammi karlak i lung i khah lonak a um ruang ah atu bantuk in Hong Kong ram cu do-aunak a um lio pi a si.

Hong Kong Chief Executive Carrie Lam

What will happen after 2047 (2047 hnu ah zeidah a cang kho) ?

British le China biakammi “Hong Kong kong i kum 50” timi cu kum 2047 ah a tling lai. Hi tikah Hong Kong cu nihin bantuk ram si lo in China ram chung i, pengtlang pakhat menmen a si te lai.

Hong Kong cu 1,106 km2 a kau i, minung 7.392 million (2017, World Bank) an umnak ram a si. Chin State cu 36,019 km2 a kau ca ah Hong Kong cu Chin State nakin a let in bi deuh.

Hong Kong Hnulei Tuanbia Zohthannak;

Hong Kong le Tuluk tuanbia ah philh awk a tha lomi Opium War cu zei a si?: Opium War cu phun hnih in tthen in First Opium War le Second Opium War tiah a rak um. Hi ral cu Tuluk le Mirang an i dohmi kha a si i, Siangpahrang nu Victoria chan le Qing siangpahrang uknak chan lio i, ral a si. A voikhatnak Opium War cu 1839, March 18 in 1842, August 29 tiang a rak si. Mirang ralkap 69 leng le Tuluk ralkap 18,000 leng an thi lai tiah an ruah damh a si.

A phi chuak cu China (Tuluk) ram i, sangphalawng (tilawng) dinhnak panga le Hong Kong cu Mirang nih Tuluk sin in a lak. A voihhninnak Opium War cu 1856, October 23 in 1860, October 18 tiang a si. Hitan ral tuk cu phundang in “Arrow War” ti zong in an kawh. Hitan ahhin France zong a rak thlak ve. Nithlak ram (France le British) ralkap hi 2,900 le Tuluk ralkap 12,000 in 30,000 karlak hi an thi lo tiah an ruahdamh hna. Mirang nih tlanglei Kowloon le nitlak lei hmunhma hna chawlet chawhrawl an rak lak kho. An teinak khua hna i, Tuluk siangpahrang inn hna cu an rak duah dih hna.

Opium War lio hmanthlak

A tawinak in kan chim ahcun hi ral tuknak cu nitlak ram (Netherland, British le France) te pawl nih Asia ram trade (chawlehnak) tuah an duh lio ah a rak thawng ngaimi China i Qing Empire he an rak dohmi khi a si. Hong Kong a rak lak bal hi cu British nih China cu a ral in a nenh tuk cang caah Queen Victoria aiawh le Daoguang Emperor of China cu an i tong i ram hnih karlak biakam minthut (treaty) an rak tuah i, “The Treaty of Nanking” tiah an rak auh. Nanking biakam nih British trade tuahnak ca sangpahrang (port) dinhnak pa 5 arak onhmi fawn (A cung i kan tialmi kha). Hi hmun 5 in China a lutmi hihi lio China i a lutmi ramdang thil kuat i 5% a rak si. Mirang bawi (Ahmun ah ummi) nih rammi (China) he biaruahnak an ngei hnu ah British nih an tlaihmi vialte thongtla vialte an thlah dih hna, A tawinak in cun hi hmun i ummi pawl thinlung kha British nih a lak khawh cang tinak a si. Hi thawk in Hong Kong cu China ta in British ta ah aa chuak. Cun, Qing cozah (China) nih hin British sinah kum 3 chung ah ral ruang i pekmi leiba 21 million silver dollar a rak ngei chap. A fawinak in Namking biakam nih hin China hi harnak a rak pek peng i, an ram tiang arak sung phah. 1898 ah Hong Kong hlanak biakam (lease) cu kum 99 chan a sau (Kallie Szczepanski, The First and Second War).

British Hong Kong Pennak: Hong Kong Island- It was given to Britain after the First Opium War Kowloon – It was Received after the 2nd Opium War, Outlying Islands – Taken in Sino-Japanese war

British Hong Kong Dirhmun: Hong Kong cu British kut in Japan nih 1941- 1945 tiang (kum 4) chung a rak pen tak ve. Ralpi pahnih i Japan a sungh hnu ah British nih Hong Kong cu a hlawm tthan. Cu a si caah Britsh nih Hong Kong hi China sinah a chanh kum 1997 in ri phih in kan tuak ahcun British nih Hong Kong a pen hi kum 150 hrawng (1842 -1997) can a si. Nain Namking Treaty min thut kha kum 99 ca ah a si i, 1898 in aa thawk. British nih Hong Kong a rak uk ah Democracy phung in a rak hmang lo.

Hong Kong ah Democracy a len cu 1980 hrawng in aa thawk chommi a rak si i, anmah te in thimnak an tuah. Hi hlan cu London nih Governer a thim piak i, a pen in arak pen. US President Franklin Roosvelt nih hin British Prime Minister Winston Churchill sinah Hong Kong hi China sin pek ding a rak forh. Nain, Churchill nih a duh lo. US nih British hi caan saupi tiang Hong Kong luatnak kong ah pressure a rak pek. 1984, Dec.19 ah British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher le Chinese Premier Zhao Ziyang cu “Sino- British Joint Declaration” an rak tuah i, British nih Hong Kong cu China sinah pek ding hnatlaknak an ngei. Hi hnatlaknak ahhin Hong Kong cu SAR (Special Administrative Region) ti a si lai ti a si. British nih official taktak in a pek cu 1997 khan a si. Phundang in cun 1997 ahhin “Hong Kong cu independence a co” ti khawh zong a si.

China he fonh lai Hong Kong Dirhmun: Kum 2000 leng China he ramkhat a simi cu British nih a pen kum 150 te ah Hong Kong cu tam tuk aa thleng. Hong Kong cu tikulh a si i, sangphalawng in chawlet chawhrawl tuahnak a thatnakte a si caah Brtish nih hin kum 99 biakam a lonh hnu zong ah arak thlah duh lo. China sin i, “One Country, Two System” si ding British nih biakam a rak tuah ahhin Hong Kong rammi pawl hi an lung arak si lem lo. 1949 i Communist nih China vialte a uk dih lio ah Nationalists timi Guamintang thong tampi hi Hong Kong ah an rak zamh len. 1960- 1970 ahcun Beijing cozah kong hi Hong Kong ah thawng tampi theih le hngalh khawh a rak si (The Guadian).

1976 ah China, Communist hruaitu (China cu party pakhat nih a ukmi ram a si, Party leader kha ram hruaitu a si) Mao Zedong cu a thi. Deng Xiaoping 1978 ah “Openning and Refrom” cu China hruaitu a hung si i, amah ruang ah China cu arak thangcho ngaingai. British nihhin kum 99 a dih tikah pehchap in Hong Kong pen kha an rak duh ko nain Deng Xiaopeng nih a rak duh lo. Leng ah, a cung i ka langhter cang bantuk in International mit nih British kha Hong Kong thlah ding a fial lio caan a si. Hi bantuk ruang tete ruang ah British nih Hong Kong a pek tthannak hi a si ti, a si. Asinain, Hong Kong mi nih China hi an rak zum kho lo. A hlei in 1989 lio Tiananmen Square i a rak chuakmi democracy duhtu siangngakchia pawl rak thahnak kong ruang ah a si. Hi Tiananmen Square thil cang ruang ah million 1 leng Hong Kong mi nih Hong Kong ah an ngaihchiatnak an langhter, China cozah cu an rak mawh chiat.

China cozah nih 1989 ah Tiananmen Square, Beijing ah Democracy duh tu siangngakchia pawl tank in an rak kah hna lio

Hong Kong British governer, Chris Patten nih 1994 ah Hong Kong ah democractic reform a rak tuah i, 1995 ah phungsertu thimnak (legislative elections) an rak tuah. Hi lio i bia a rak chuakmi cu , “British nih Hong Kong hi Democracry ram si ding a sau tuk a hngah, a thlah lo ,” ti a si. Amah China hrim nih Hong Kong British cozah hi arak mawh chiat. Hi ruang ah ram pahnih pehtlaihnak arak ttha lem lo i, Hong Kong mi tampi cu Canada rammi sinak le British rammi sinak an rak sok len. 1997 July 1 ah Hongkong cu SAR (Special Administrative region) of China a hung si. Phundang in “One Country, Two System” cu Hong Kong le China kar ah aa thawk ti khawh a si.

Hong Kong Hmailei Kong i Biakam

Hong Kong kong ah China le British nih biakamnak an ngeihmi cu “One country, two system” dot tang tete ah,

  1. Hongkong cu mah te aa ukmi a si lai. ramdang he pehtlaihnak le defence affairs kong dah ti lo China nih tuhnu kum 50 tiang aa thlak lai lo.
  2. Amah te in upadi aa ngeih lai.
  3. Party tampi a ummi ramkhel riantuannak a ngeimi a si lai .
  4. Zalong te in chim phuan khawhnak le zalong te in i ton pumhnak a ngei kho lai.” ti bantuk hna hi hnatlaknak an ngeimi cu a si. (BBC)
    ____________________

Reference:

https://www.reuters.com/article/us-hongkong-anniversary-history/chronology-timeline-of-156-years-of-british-rule-in-hong-kong-idUSSP27479920070627
Cheng, Joseph Y.S. “The Future of Hong Kong: A Hong Kong ‘Belonger’s’ View.” International Affairs 58.3 (1982): 476–88. Print.
Fung, Anthony Y.H., and Chi Kit Chan. “Post-Handover Identity: Contested Cultural Bonding Between China and Hong Kong.” Chinese Journal of Communication 10.4 (2017): 395–412. Print.
Li, Kui-Wai. “Chapter 18—Hong Kong 1997–2047: The Political Scene.” “Redefining Capitalism in Global Economic Development.” Academic Press, 2017. 391–406. Print.
Maxwell, Neville. “Sino-British Confrontation over Hong Kong.” Economic and Political Weekly 30.23 (1995): 1384–98. Print.
Meyer, Karl E. “The Opium War’s Secret History.” The New York Times, June 28, 1997. Print.
Tsang, Steve. “A Modern History of Hong Kong.” London: I.B. Tauris & Co. Ltd, 2007. Print.
Yahuda, Michael. “Hong Kong’s Future: Sino-British Negotiations, Perceptions, Organization and Political Culture.” International Affairs 69.2 (1993): 245–66. Print.
Yip, Anastasia. “Hong Kong and China: One Country, Two Systems, Two Identities.” Global Societies Journal 3 (2015). Print.
https://www.theguardian.com/world/2002/jul/01/china1
https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-china-40426827
https://edition.cnn.com/asia/live-news/hong-kong-protests-june-12-intl-hnk/index.html

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