2008 Phunghrampi Remhnak: Tlangcung mi nih Phunghrampi Ser/remhnak ca ah Chuahpi mi Biatung

Salai Ceu Bik Thawng| Chin Digest Vol 5, No. 2| Ralkap zong nih an hnatlak cang mi Phunghrampi 2008 remh nakding ca ah NLD Cozah nih tukum chung ah chungtel 45 in Kawmiti a hun ser i atu hi ‘a hran’ cu an lim cang ti a si. A ra lai mi July thla i tuah ding mi Parliament ah an chuahpi te lai. Mah ah cun biatak tein ceih (debate) a si cang lai. Tlangcung kan MP pawl nih teh zeitin dah an ceih ve te hnga? Tutan Parliament ah tlangcung party pa 10 nih ṭhutdan an co — MP 57 hrawng an ngei. Tlangcung hmunhma dihlak tu cu 200 leng a um, Chin nih 21 kan ngei. Asinain Tlangcung MP 4/3 cu Kawl party an si.

2008 Phunghrampi chung ah zeimawzat cu tutan ah an remh cang lai tik ah cu zawn ah Tlangcung mi kan covo__ kan pipu chan in kan aupi peng mi pawl aa tel khawh nakding, a tlawm bik ah Kawl hna pemh in aupi caan a si cang. Cucaah, Panglong thawk in nihin tiang kan ram tuanbia a dotdot ah Tlangcung buu le upa pawl nih an rak aupi mi biatung pawl cu a tanglei ah a tawinak tete in ka van langhter ṭhan (Kawl ca in cathluan-sau in ka ṭial mi a tawinak in Laica in ka leh ṭhan mi a si)

1947 Phunghrampi le Tlangcung mi
Panglong Hnatlaknak ngah hnu ah Taingpiohpipioh Hluttaw ah Phunghrampi cu ser hram thawk a hun si tik ah Tlangcung mi pawl nih a lamkip in an duhning le an dirhmun cu an rak chuahpi cio. Asinain cu a tam-u cu cohlanpiak a rak si lo. Cu lak ah 7-2-1947 lio ah Shan, Chin le Kachin upa pawl nih rak ser mi Tlangcungmi Funtomnak Buu (SCOUHP) nih an chuahpi mi cathluan hi langhter ka duh. Cu buu nih Panglong meting thawk hlan deuh 6-2-1947 ni ah biafunnak an tuah mi pa (5) a um i cu lak ah –
– Kawl le Tlangcungmi pawl aa tlukrual mi covo ngeih ding [caang – 1nak]
– Rampi in chuah duh ah chuah khawhnak nawl ngeih ding [caang -5nak] ti hna an i tel (ပင္လံုလက္စြဲ၊ ၂၀၁၈)
Hi buu ṭhiamṭhiam nih 21-4-1947 ni ah Committee of Inṭuiry sin ah biatung pa (7) an chuahpi ṭhan. Cu lak ah a biapi mi hna cu –
– Tlangcung mi mahte khuakhannak lairelnak nawl (self-determination) tling tein ngah ding le duh tik poh ah rampi in chuah khawhnak nawl [caang (2)(a)(c)]
– Tlangcung mi kongkau he aa pehtlai mi Phunghrampi remh/ser duh tik ah anmah aiawh palai pawl i cheu thum cheu hnih uak hnatlaknak lawng in tuah/biakhiah ding [caang-5nak]
– Ramkomhpi Cozah vuanci pawl rian pek tik ah Kawl vuanci milu cu Tlangcung vuanci milu dihlak nakin zeitik hmanh ah tam deuh hlah seh [caang -7nak] tehna an i tel (The 1947 Constitution and the Nationalities: 1999)

1961 Taungkyi Civui le a pehpar
Tlangcung mi ramkhel upa 330 cu Shan ram Taungkyi khua ah Phunghrampi (1947) remh ṭhan nakding ah 1961 kum June (8) in (16) tiang ton biaruahnak civuipi an rak ngei. Cu an meting ah Shan lei upa pawl nih an vun chuahpi mi Federal tungtlang pa (5) cu a rak kai mi palai dihlak nih hnatlaknak an ngei. Cu hna cu –
1) Kawl miphun ramkulh (state) pa khat ser ding
2) Ramkomh Parliament pa 2 cu nawlngeihnak tlukrual tein pek ding
3) Cungdot Parliament (လူမ်ိဳးစုလႊတ္ေတာ္) ah ramkulh nih palai milu zatceo cio in thlah ding
4) Ramkomh Cozah cu a tanglei ဌာန pawl tlaihter i a taang mi a dang nawlngeihnak (residuary power) pohpoh ramkulh(states) kut ah chiah ding,
 Ramdang pehtlaihnak
 Ramkomh(ျပည္ေထာင္စု) runvennak
 Ramkomh batzet
 Phaisa tlap/sernak
 Thirhri(ေၾကးနန္း) le caphawtnak
 Tlanglawng, vanlawng le tilawng pehtlaihnak,
 Ramkulhpi biaceihnak
 Rili-bual le ngunkhuai

5) Ramkomh budget buaktlak tein ṭthenphawtnak… hna hi an si (ေမာင္စင္ၾကယ္၊ ၂၀၁၈).
Cu civuipi ah cun Ramkulh pawl Funtomnak Phu (ျပည္နယ္မ်ား ညီညြတ္ေရးအဖြဲ႕) zong an ser i a tanglei federal tungtlang pawl an thlaak (fehter) nolh. Cu hna cu –
– Phunghrampi i ṭial lo mi nawlngeihnak pohpoh ramkulh (state) kut ah chiah ding,
– Ramkulh kip nih mah le Ramkulh Phunghrampi ngeih cio ding,
– Switzerland ram he aa lo mi Parliament phung hman ding,
– Ramkulh dihlak mahte uknak(complete autonomy) ngah ding,
– Ramkulh chung kongkau ah Ramkomhpi nih i thlaaknak nawl ngeih lo ding,
– Ramkulh kip nih Ramkomhpi in chuahnak nawl ngeih ding… tipawl (ပင္လံုလက္စြဲ၊ ၂၀၁၈)။
Cu pin ah, Ne Win nih hramhram in uknak a chuh hlan zarh khat aa duh (24-2-1962) ah Yangon (အသံလႊင့္ရံု) ah Federal Tungtlang Ceihmainak an tuah i Vuancichoh U Nu zong a kai. Cu ah cun Ramkulh pawl Funtomnak Phu aiawh in chairman Sao Khun Cho nih bia a chim mi ah ‘Kawl miphun ramkulh pakhat ser ding’ kong le ‘nawlngeihnak a hlei mi (residuary powers) pohpoh ramkulh kut ah chiah ding(atu ah cun ramkulhpi kut ah a um cumu)’ pawl biatung a chuahpi.

General Ne Win chan le 1974 Phunghrampi
Federal phung kha rampi kehkuainak a si tiah Ne Win nih ralkp phung in a kan pen chung kum 25 chung ah tlangcung mi nih ramkhel kong chimrelnak nawl kan ngei ti lo. Kum 1970 hrawng ah khan ‘Phunghrampi a thar in ka ṭial lai’ ti kaw mizapi sin ah ruahnak a hun hal. Cu tik ah Pu Lian Uk hruai mi Chin mino zaleng nih leklak tiah federal catluan an chuah pi i an kuat; nain hngap tiah a tlaih colh ve hna. An catluan chung ah tamdeuh cu a cunglei kan langhter mi pawl kha an si hna i phundang tete an van chap mi ruah awktlak pawl cu –
– Ramkulh kip nih (ral le ramkhel kong dah ti lo) ram dang he pehtlaih/lungtlin minthutnak nawl ngeih ding [caang- 25nak]
– Ke ralkap ah ramkulh miphun cio nih a tlawm bik Brigade pakhat i tel ding [caang-20nak]
– Ramkulh kip nih mah le ramkulh thantar (flag) le tayeik hmannak nawl [caang-43nak].

Than Shwe chan le Nargis Phunghrampi
1990 thimnak phichuak cu ralkap cozah nih a zulh duh lo caah 1993 kum ah National Convention a tuah i Phunghrampi ṭial a thawk. Cu ah cun tlangcung in KIA tehna, MP hlun pawl hna zeimawzat cu an i tel ve nain an kaa an phih hna, an chim mi hnihkhat zong an hnawl piak hna. Cucaah hriamtlaibu pawl hrihhawhnak in tlangcung mi pawl cu anmah tein Ramkomh Phunghrampi le Ramkulh Phunghrampi ṭial hram an thawk ve– zuamcawh (parallel process) in. Cu tawlrelnak ah biapi in ṭuanvo a la mi cu ENSCC/ENC, EBO le FCDCC tehna hi an si. FCDCC nih Federal Phunghrampi ‘The Constitution of the Federal Republic of the Union of Burma’ a hran a ṭialmi ah a biapi in nihin Phunghrampi(2008) remhnak ah zohchih a tlak mi hna cu –

– Ramkulh (states) cu ‘miphun ramkulh’ le ‘miphun-komh ramkulh’ tiin ser ding, atu ramkulh (7) pin ah Kawl miphun ramkulh siseh, Tanintharyi le Irrawaddy miphun-komh ramthen…tbk in ser ding [caang – 48(b)]
– Ramkulh cio nih mah le Phunghrampi ngeih ding [caang-50]
– Ramkulh a ngei rih lo mi miphun pawl hna ca ah mahte-uknak-nawl (self-administration) le Union Territory ngeihnak nawl [caang-53(b)]
– Ramkulh (state) thar ngeihnak nawl [caang-55, 56]
– Ramkulh kilvennak ralkap (ျပည္နယ္လံုျခံဳေရးတပ္) le ramthen palik ngeih ding [caang-54]
– Phunghrampi ah ṭial lo mi nawlngeihnak vialte ramkulh kut ah chiah ding [caang-52]
– Ramkomh (central) ah runvennak, ramdang kong, chawkhelnak(phaisa), pehtlaihnak, fimcawnnak (post-graduate, since & technology), ngandamnak, biaceihnak, sehzung tbk… nawlngeihnak pek [caang-103]
– Concurrent list ti mi nawlngeihnak i hrawm mi cazin phun 16 chiah a si [caang-104]
– Parliamentary ukphung hman [caang-114(d), 121]
– Rammi sinak le ramkulh mi sinak tiin citizenship pa hnih (USA bantuk) [caang-147]
– Ramkomh zung holh (official language) ah Kawl holh hman i ramkulh cio nih anmah le miphun holh kha zung holh ah hman chih khawhnak nawl (India bantuk) [caang-183]
– Tlangcungmi nunphung/pupa-ro vawlei ngeihnak nawl [caang-195]
– Phunghrampi remh tik ah ram thum chuahhnih(2/3) hnatlaknak lak ding [caang-203]

Cupinah, ENC nih kum 2005 lioah Federal tungtlang an rak thlaak mi catluan ah; ramkulh phunghrampi sernak nawl, residuary power ramkulh nih ngeihnak nawl le secular state (biaknak ah hram bunh lo mi ram) ser ding tehna hi an rak chuahpi ve. Cutin EBO dirhṭhohnak in ramkulh cio nih mahle Phunghrampi zong a hran an rak ṭial cio__ Chin Forum nih an rak ser mi a hran hna cu voi 5nak tiang an tharchuah cang i atu zong pehzulh hram kan thawk cuahmah.

NCA le Zabu 21 Panglong Civui
NCA minthut ning in ramkomh huap remdaih chawnhbiaknak civui (Union Peace Conference -21st CP) cu Pu Thein Sein chan ah voi khat, Pi Suu Kyi chan ah voi thum tiin tuah a si cang i Pyidaungsu Accords ti mi ramkomh huap hnatlaknak zong 37 in voikhat, 14 in voikhat tiin 51 lungtlin a si cang. NCA pohmah 20(f) le 22(d) ning ahcun cu vialte cu Parliament ah chuahpi i a herhning in Phunghrampi remh ding khi a si. Asinain, ngaihchia ngai a si mi cu, mah vialte chung ah 99% cu phunghrampi remhnak ah ṭhathnemnak an ngei lo. Tlangcung hriamtlaiphu pawl zong nih an i lungsi lo ngai nain ralkap le Kawl cozah he chawnhbiaknak hri a cat sual lai tiah a phungmen in min an thut mi a si lai.

Cu 51 chung ah, Phunghrampi 2008 remh awktlak ah ruah mi Tlangcungmi covo hna cu; ramkhel section ah ‘ramkhel le miphun ah tlukruannak um lai’ ti mi le ‘a kakip ah nu a tlawm bik 30% tel ding ti mi le vawlei kongkau ah ‘ram mi nih vawlei ngeihnak nawl’ ti mi pa 3 hi Phunghrampi ah remh/chap awktlak cu an si. Kan chim cia bang, a dang pawl cu Phunghrampi ah a um cia, asiloah, telh lo zongah a poi lomi pawl an si.

Amah belte, Zabu 21 Panglong ramkhel biaruahnak ah tlangcung phu/upa pawl nih biatung dirh mi le aupi mi pawl__nihin tiang cohlan piak a si rih lo mi pawl belte tam ngai a taang rih. Cu hna pawl cu atu i Parliament ah ceihmai cuahmah mi Phunghrampi remhnak buantual ah tlangcung MP pawl nih chuahpi awk a si. Cu lak ah biapi deuhdeuh hna cu; rampi a min (Myanmar/Burma min ruah ṭhan ding), tlangcung mi mahte-khuakhannak nawl, Kawl miphun ramkulh pakhat ser ding, Federal ralkap (ramkulh humzualtu ralkap) ser ding, kokek thil mansung ṭhenphawtnak phung (ramkulh nih tam deuh ngah duh), nuhrin holh in cacawnnak phung, rampi/ramṭhen zung holh (official languages), biaknak kong (section 361/2/3 remh ding tepawl), tlangcung mi vawlei ngeih khawhnak tbk… Cu lawng si lo in FPIC ti mi rian pipuam ṭuan tikah tualṭo/a hmun-um pawl hnatlaknak lak hmasa ding tepawl hna zong Phunghrampi ah hrenh chih awk a si.

NCA leng in federal tungtlang ceihmainak

Kan theih cio bang NCA hi hma a kal lo. Cun min thu lo pawl hi a tam deuh le thazang ṭhawng deuh an si fawn. Cucaah ramkhel biaruahnak hi NCA faiceukulh lawng in kalpi peng awk a ṭha lo ti kha tlangcung hriamtlai le tlangcung party upa pawl nih kan lung a fiang. Cucaah federal ramkhel ah tlangcung mi dihlak kan i fun khawh nakding ah tiin ‘Federal Tungtlang (principles)’ cu hriamtlai le tlangcung party pawl (NCA minthu he thu lo he, UNA he NBF he) hmunkhat ah a thar in ṭial cuahmah a si. Cucu a hran 3nak tharchuah (revise) liopi a si. A tam-u cu a cung i kan langhter mi biafunnak pawlisi ṭhing pawl kha an si ko. Tlawmpal tete hun mersan mi pawl belte a um. Tck. ah, Parliamentary phung si lo in Presidential system in ramkomh cozah hi kalpi siseh law ti hna biatung chuahpinak a um. A hran lawng a si rih caah le, zapi sinah chuahpi rih lo mi a si caah cu tu cu tampi kan hun com lai lo.

Biafunnak

Phunghrampi remhnak ah ralkap an lung a thawh taktak lo ruang ah siseh, NLD cozah nih tlangcung mi a kan theihthiam taktak lo ruang ah siseh, Phunghrampi remhnak a ceihtu ding Tlangcung mi palai Parliament chung ah an tlawm tuk ruang ah siseh, tlangcung hriamtlai pawl Parliament chung ah ceihmai khawh a si lo caah siseh, tutan Phunghrampi remhnak ah tlangcungmi nih ruahchannak tampi ngeih awk cu a ṭha lo. Asinain, a tlawm bik (a tlawmbik) a tanglei federal kong pehpar thil (10) tal hi cu an kan cohlanpiak awk a si hnga –

– Ramkulh pawl mah tein Vuancichoh thim khawhnak nawl,
– Nuhrin holh in cacawn khawhnak nawl (Mother tongue based education system)
– Ramkulh miphun holh kha zung holh ah ser khawhnak nawl (India bantuk),
– Kokek thil mansung ṭhenhphawtnak (ramkulh nih tamdeuh ngah duh),
– FPIC phung tling tein zulh ding,
– Biaknak ah i tlukruan ding (361-2-3 remh ding)
– Ralkap nih 25% thutdanh a lak mi le vuancizung a tlaih mi pawl khrih ding,
– Phunghrampi cacaang 201 remh i NDSC chung ralkap nawlngeihnak zorter ding,
– Phunghrampi (2008) i ramkomh upadi cazin (Schedule I) i a tamdeuh kha ramkulh upadi cazin (Schedule II) ah ṭhial ding,
– Political post/position ti mi cozah thutdan le diplomat pawl hmunhma pek tik ah 40% nak tlawmlo kha tlangcung mi hmunhma pek ding tbk…

Cu lawng si lo in, a cung i kan langhter cang bang, tlangcung mi pawl i kan lungthlitum a si mi, a pipuam deuh mi; miphun hoih in ramkulh ser ding (Kawl ramkulh pakhat ser ding), ramkulh Phunghrampi sernak nawl ngeih ding, federal ralkap ser ding, ramkulh palik a bing tein ser ding, Residual powers ramkulh pek dih ding, rampi in chuahnak nawl kham/phihkhar lo ding… tipawl zong hrial awk ṭha loin ceihhmai le biatung dirh ding a si. Cu thil pawl kan sersiam khawh hlan lo poh cu kan ram cu a dai kho taktak lai lo.

Chirhchan –
– Universities Historical Research Center (1999). The 1947 Constitution and the Nationalities. Yangon, Myanmar; Innwa Publishing House
– Report of the Frontier Areas Committee of Enṭuiry, 1947
– ပင္လံုလက္စြဲျပဳစုေရးအဖြဲ႔(၂၀၁၈)၊ ပင္လံုလက္စြဲ (ပင္လံုစာခ်ဳပ္၊ ပင္လံုကတိက၀တ္ႏွႈ့္ ပင္လံုစိတ္ဓတ္တို႔ကို အဓိပၸာယ္ဖြင့္ဆိုျခင္း)။
– ေမာင္စင္ၾကယ္(၂၀၁၈)၊ လူမ်ိဳးစုျပည္သူေတြရဲ့ရင္ထဲက ပင္လံု။
– ခြန္မတ္ရ္ကိုဘန္(၂၀၁၄)၊ ပင္လံုစိတ္ဓတ္မွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာ ဒီမိုကေရစီဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စု တည္ေဆာက္ ေရးဆီသို႔။
– ဦးေရႊအံုး၊ မၿပိဳကြဲႏိုင္ေသာ ျပည္ေထာင္စုႀကီး တည္ေဆာက္ၾကပါစို႔။
– ဆလိုင္းလ်န္မႈန္း(၂၀၁၈)၊ ပင္လံုကတိက၀တ္မ်ား(ပင္လံုစာခ်ဳပ္ကို လက္မွတ္ေရးထိုးခဲ့ၾကေသာ တိုင္းရင္းသား လူမ်ိဳးမ်ား၏ ျပည္ေထာင္စုအေပၚေ၀ဖန္သံုးသပ္သည့္ စာတမ္းမ်ား)။
– ဆလိုင္းလ်န္မႈန္း(၂၀၁၃)၊ တိုင္းရင္းသားလူမ်ိဳးမ်ားလိုလားေသာ ဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္။
– NCA လက္မွတ္ေရးထိုးထားေသာ တိုင္းရင္းသားလက္နက္ကိုင္အဖြဲ႔အစည္းမ်ားမွ ျပည္ေထာင္စု ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းေရး ညီလာခံ- (၂၁)ရာစုပင္လံုတတိယအစည္းအေ၀းအတြက္ ျပင္ဆင္ထားေသာ အေျခခံမူမ်ား (၂၀၁ရ)။
– NCA စာခ်ဳပ္၊ ျပည္ေထာင္စုၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းေရးညီလာခံမွတ္တမ္းစာအုပ္မ်ားႏွင့္ ျပည္ေထာင္စုသေဘာတူ စာခ်ဳပ္အစိုက္ အပိုင္း(၁)(၂)မ်ား။

Theiternak: Hi Capar cu Chin Digest Vol. 5, No. 2 (August 2019) ah Salai Ceu Bik Thawng nih a tialmi a si. Atu lio a cang cuahmahmi kong a si caah, Chin Digest Careltu sin ah hawihlan in kan hun tlangzamhnak hi a si. Catialtu Salai Ceu Bik Thawng cu Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok ah Master of Art in International Development a dihmi a si. Atulio, Chin party pathum fonh in dirh mi Chin National League for Democracy ah General Secretary a ṭuan cuahmah lio mi zong a si. Laica le kawl ca in capar tampi a ṭialtu zong a si. ~ Editor 

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